Using SharePoint RPC to Create Directories

Applies To: SharePoint, VB.NET

SharePoint provides many ways to create directories and to upload documents. One of the oldest, and possibly least understood, ways is to use the SharePoint Foundation RPC Protocol.

Generally, using RPC can be more trouble than it’s worth. However, RPC performs and scales well. It supports uploading your content and setting the metadata in one call. You can also use streams rather than just byte arrays. There are a few other reasons why you might choose RPC over the more common solutions, but I’ll assume you know what you’re trying to accomplish.

You can find a decent overview of options by Steve Curran that might give you a little more insight. If you’re still convinced RPC is the way to go, follow along!

In this post I’ll give you some basics about executing RPC methods and demonstrate by showing you how to create multiple directories in a single call.

Getting Started with RPC

The most frustrating part of working with RPC can be trying to track down working examples. In addition, the documentation is pretty sparse. It can also be difficult to find out exactly how you should be encoding your commands and exactly which part(s) should be encoded. Ultimately, you are just making an HTTP POST, but figuring out the correct payload can take a lot of trial and error. Especially since RPC is a little light on helpful error messages.

I’ve broken things down into several utility functions that should help keep things relatively simple and eliminate a lot of the low level troubleshooting that can slow you down.

I’m using VB.NET because the project I initially integrated these calls into was written in VB.NET. Nearly every example I saw out there was in C# and it shouldn’t be too hard to translate my code as needed. Should you have any difficulty, just leave a comment below. I have also placed all of my code inside a Module named SPUploader for convenience.

Basic Encoding Functions

Imports System.Net
Imports System.Text
Imports System.Web
Imports System.IO
Public Module SPUploader

    Public Function EncodeString(value As String) As String
        Return HttpUtility.UrlEncode(value).Replace(".", "%2e")
    End Function

    Private Function escapeVectorCharacters(value As String) As String
        Return value.Replace("\", "\\").Replace(";", "\;").Replace("|", "\|").Replace("[", "\[").Replace("]", "\]").Replace("=", "\=")
    End Function

Above are just a couple of simple functions that help to prepare strings. The characters that need to be escaped and the way in which certain parts are encoded can be difficult to sort through in RPC. We’ll be using these both quite a bit.

The EncodeString function uses the standard UrlEncode method with one additional encoding for periods. Some RPC methods don’t seem to have a problem with periods, but they all work with encoded ones. The escapeVectorCharacters function escapes the following characters \;|[]=

RPC Method Helpers

RPC methods are called using the method name, exact SharePoint version, service name and then any parameters. For instance, the create url-directories method that we will be using to create directories should be called like this:

method=create url-directories:server_extension_version&service_name=/&urldirs=list_of_url_directories

This presents a few challenges. First, we need the exact version of SharePoint before we make any calls. Hardcoding this is just asking for trouble. Second, what is the service_name? (Hint: It generally doesn’t matter and can almost always be left as /) and finally what are the parameters and how should those be included?

We’ll get to the specifics of the create url-directories method, but first let’s look at a series of functions that simplify how we call RPC methods in general:

    Public Function SharePointVersion(sharepointURL As String) As String
        Using client As New WebClient()
            client.UseDefaultCredentials = True
            Return client.ResponseHeaders("MicrosoftSharePointTeamServices")
        End Using
    End Function

I adapted the above function from Joshua on Stackoverflow. This is a quick call to SharePoint that will give you that exact version string needed in all RPC methods. The general idea is that you can call this before an RPC method and cache the result for additional calls.

Here’s a helper method that takes care of building the properly encoded method string:

    Private Function methodValue(method As String, SPVersion As String) As String
        Return EncodeString(String.Format("{0}:{1}", method, SPVersion))
    End Function

This function simplifies generating the method:server_extension_version portion of the command.

Helper Class: RPCParameter

When dealing with additional parameters for methods (anything beyond method and service_name), the encoding of those parameters can get a little tricky. I’ve written a helper class called RPCParameter that can help smooth this trickiness:

Imports System.Web
Public Class RPCParameter
    Public Key As String
    Public Value As String = String.Empty
    Public IsMultiValue As Boolean = False
    Public Encode As Boolean = True

    Public Sub New(_key As String, _value As String, Optional _isMultiValue As Boolean = False, Optional _encode As Boolean = True)
        Key = _key
        Value = _value
        IsMultiValue = _isMultiValue
        Encode = _encode
    End Sub

    Public Function IsValid() As Boolean
        Return Not String.IsNullOrEmpty(Key)
    End Function

    Public Overrides Function ToString() As String
        If IsMultiValue Then
            Return String.Format("{0}=[{1}]", Key, IIf(Encode, SPUploader.EncodeString(Value), Value))
            Return String.Format("{0}={1}", Key, IIf(Encode, SPUploader.EncodeString(Value), Value))
        End If
    End Function
End Class

In general, parameters come exactly as you’d expect with a key=encodedvalue. However, there are some variations that can complicate things. This object may seem a little strange but it will become more obvious when we actually see it used. By default, a simple RPCParameter object is just a Key Value Pair with a custom ToString override that outputs key=encodedvalue.

There are some additional properties, however, that can customize this behavior. You can turn off encoding for the value by specifying the Encode property as false. The IsMultiValue property will insert the square brackets before encoding the value. This is important because often the values need to be encoded, but not the brackets.

Generating the Command

Every RPC method is just a string of parameters (Command String) that we convert to a byte array to upload as part of an HTTP POST. Here are a series of overloaded functions to help generate that command string into a byte array:

    Public Function CommandBytes(method As String, SPVersion As String, parameter As RPCParameter, Optional serviceName As String = "/") As Byte()
        Return Encoding.UTF8.GetBytes(CommandString(method, SPVersion, parameter, serviceName))
    End Function

    Public Function CommandBytes(method As String, SPVersion As String, parameters As List(Of RPCParameter), Optional serviceName As String = "/") As Byte()
        Return Encoding.UTF8.GetBytes(CommandString(method, SPVersion, parameters, serviceName))
    End Function

    Public Function CommandString(method As String, SPVersion As String, parameter As RPCParameter, Optional serviceName As String = "/") As String
        Dim parameters As New List(Of RPCParameter)
        Return CommandString(method, SPVersion, parameters, serviceName)
    End Function

    Public Function CommandString(method As String, SPVersion As String, parameters As List(Of RPCParameter), Optional serviceName As String = "/") As String
        Dim command As New StringBuilder
        command.AppendFormat("method={0}&service_name={1}", methodValue(method, SPVersion), EncodeString(serviceName))
        For Each parameter As RPCParameter In parameters
            If parameter.IsValid Then
                command.AppendFormat("&{0}", parameter.ToString)
            End If
        Return command.ToString
    End Function

The CommandBytes functions (lines 27-33) encode the result string into a byte array and allow you to specify either a single RPCParameter object or a List of RPCParameter objects.

The CommandString fuctions actually build the string (lines 35-50). The only difference between them is that if you specify a single parameter, it gets converted to a List of parameters.

The real work for all 4 of these functions occurs in the final CommandString function (lines 41-50). We build the initial method=method&service_name=/ string that is used for every RPC method (line 43). Notice that we use our methodValue helper function to simplify things and and we always encode the service_name value.

Finally, we loop through the RPCParameter objects and append them if they have keys (IsValidusing the RPCParameter.ToString call that takes into account our individual encoding preferences.

So now that we can build the Command String, how do we actually send it to the server?

Executing an RPC Method

Executing an RPC method is really just sending an HTTP POST to a specific dll using the Command String as the payload. This can be easily done using a WebClient object:

    Public Function ExecuteRPC(webURL As String, data As Byte(), Optional creds As NetworkCredential = Nothing) As String
        Dim result As String = String.Empty
        If creds Is Nothing Then creds = CredentialCache.DefaultCredentials

        Using client As New WebClient With {.UseDefaultCredentials = False, .Credentials = creds}
            client.Headers("Content") = "application/x-vermeer-urlencoded"
            client.Headers("X-Vermeer-Content-Type") = "application/x-vermeer-urlencoded"
            client.Headers("user-agent") = "FrontPage"
            result = Encoding.UTF8.GetString(client.UploadData(webURL & "/_vti_bin/_vti_aut/author.dll", "POST", data))
        End Using

        Return result
    End Function

The ExecuteRPC function creates a WebClient object and sets the Content, X-Vermeer-Content-Type, and user-agent headers (lines 56-59). The main action happens in line 60 when we call the UploadData method causing the POST to the author.dll (there are additional dlls that can be used depending on your method, but this was the only one I’ve needed so I left it this way for simplicity) using the byte array we generate from the CommandString functions.

So far all we’ve done is setup all the helper functions so that we can call generic RPC methods. Any confusion on how we take advantage of all this code should clear up once we look at actually executing a real method.

Creating Directories

Our goal is to create a directory (or more often, multiple directories) using the create url-directories RPC method. We want to be able to take a folder path and ensure every folder in that path exists or is created. For instance, given the folder path “Some Folder/Sub Folder 1/Some Other Folder” we need to potentially create 3 directories in a single RPC method call.

The create url-directories method has only one parameter: urldirs. This parameter is an array of directories, along with properties for each, that we would like created if they don’t already exist. For our purposes, we’re just going to create standard folders without specifying any additional properties. Here’s what the code looks like:

    Public Function CreateFolder(webURL As String, libraryName As String, folderPath As String, SPVersion As String, Optional creds As NetworkCredential = Nothing) As String
        If Not String.IsNullOrEmpty(folderPath) Then
            folderPath = folderPath.Trim("/")

            'create url-directories method:
            Return ExecuteRPC(webURL, CommandBytes("create url-directories", SPVersion, New RPCParameter("urldirs", folderPathToURLDirectories(libraryName, folderPath), True)), creds)
        End If
        Return "folderPath is Empty!"
    End Function

    Private Function folderPathToURLDirectories(libraryName As String, folderPath As String) As String
        Dim directories As New StringBuilder
        Dim parent As New StringBuilder

        folderPath = folderPath.Trim("/")
        libraryName = libraryName.Trim("/")

        parent.Append(libraryName & "/")

        Dim folders As String() = Split(folderPath, "/")
        For Each folder As String In folders
            directories.Append(parent.ToString & escapeVectorCharacters(folder))
            parent.Append(escapeVectorCharacters(folder) & "/")

        Return directories.ToString
    End Function

The CreateFolder function takes a web URL (this does not have to be the root site in a site collection), the name of the library in which to create the folder(s), the folderpath, the SharePoint version, and optionally the credentials to be used during the call (if not specified, the default credentials are used).

If the folderPath isn’t a blank string (line 67), then we strip off any trailing forward slashes (line 68). We then call our ExecuteRPC function using the bytes generated by calling the CommandBytes function using the method create url-directories.

In our ExecuteRPC function call we pass a single RPCParameter object. This is the urldirs parameter and we specify that it is a MultiValue parameter (this will ensure we have the required square brackets around the value). We set the value of the RPCParameter to the result of the folderPathToURLDirectories function. Finally we return the result from the server.

The folderPathToURLDirectories function is used to build our urldirs parameter. Directories need to be created in the proper order (parents first) and each need to have their full path (including the libraryName) in the form [url=path;meta_info=[]]. So if we have the path “Some Folder/Sub Folder 1/Some Other Folder” for the library Documents we want to end up with:

[url=Documents/Some Folder;meta_info=[]][url=Documents/Some Folder/Sub Folder 1;meta_info=[]][url=Documents/Some Folder/Sub Folder 1/Some Other Folder;meta_info=[]]

We do this by splitting the folderPath (line 85) and tracking the parent (including the libraryName) as we create each entry (lines 86-91).


That’s it! Now we can create a bunch of directories in SharePoint using the RPC Protocol! WOWEE! Stay tuned for my next post where we will add to our code to allow us to upload documents and set metadata all within a single call!

Unpublished View

Applies To: SharePoint

Versioning is a great feature in SharePoint but can cause administrators headaches when it comes to something like branding or other resource files. I’ve previously shown you how to automatically publish a major version and to approve documents as your solution deploys. In a perfect world you’ll never touch these files except through your solution.

However, sometimes you’ll need to quickly fix something or tweak something and you end up in a common situation: You can see the change but no one else can. This happens when versioning is turned on and you either haven’t published a major version (versions below 1) or the changes you’ve made are in draft state (ie 1.1 instead of 2.0).

Tracking these down can be frustrating since everything works for those with the right permissions. So here’s a quick view to add to your library to help you identify these problems. We’ll be filtering the library on 2 columns: Approval Status and Checked Out To.

First thing to do is to create a new view (I’ve named mine Unpublished). Choose whatever columns you want but some helpful ones are Type, Name, Modified, Modified By, Checked Out To and Version. You’ll also want to scroll down to the Folders settings and choose Show all items without folders.

You’ll notice that your view is now showing everything in a giant list because we didn’t apply any kind of filter. The reason for this is that the browser based view editor won’t let us select either IsNotNull as our comparison type or the Approval Status column. Fortunately, both of these things can be done very easily in SharePoint Designer. So switch to the Library ribbon and choose Modify in SharePoint Designer (Advanced) from the Modify View dropdown.

In the Code view just paste the following into your View’s XML inside the Query element:

			<FieldRef Name="_ModerationStatus"/>
			<Value Type="ModStat">Draft</Value>
			<FieldRef Name="CheckoutUser"/>

Things should look similar to this:


What our view is doing is showing any files that are checked out (so the CheckoutUser column is not blank) or that don’t have a major version. For whatever reason Microsoft won’t give you easy access to the _ModerationStatus column unless your library is requiring approvals, but we can still use it. When it’s set to Draft then it’s a minor version.

Save and refresh in the browser and you should only see those documents that may be causing you problems. Check them in or Publish a Major Version as needed and things should be good. We’ve found this simple view to be very helpful, hopefully you do as well.

Broken Add New Document Links

Applies To: SharePoint 2010

We ran into an interesting problem the other day where a user called and said that everytime they clicked the Add New Document link they got a giant error message. I went to the site and was able to confirm that it was indeed blowing up.

This was only happening when the document library was being exposed through a web part on another page. Going directly to the library and clicking New Document or Upload Document in the ribbon worked just fine. The problem was obviously with the web part toolbar, which in this case was set to Summary Toolbar.

It appears this is something left over from our upgrade from SharePoint 2007 to SharePoint 2010. I would’ve thought the Visual Upgrade would have fixed this and it’s amazing no one noticed for well over a year! It seems that Microsoft changed not only the look of the link (switching the icon from a little square to a green plus and removing the word new) the underlying address also changed.

Broken Old Style Link
Correct Style Link

Taking a look at where these links were pointed, I could see that the old style link was pointed at listform.aspx:


While the new style link was pointed at Upload.aspx:


Fixing this is pretty easy. Just edit the web part and change the Toolbar Type to No Toolbar and click Apply:


Then immediately switch the Toolbar Type back to Summary Toolbar and press OK:


Interestingly, other web parts sometimes show the old style link too (links, announcements, etc.) but since these all seem to still use the listform.aspx they continue to work. However, you can use the above technique to get them to match visually as well (green plus icon).

Dates With Relative Countdowns and Pretty Colors in List Views

Applies To: SharePoint 2010

Every list in SharePoint automatically comes with two date columns (Created & Modified). Often times other date columns get added in there and it can be nice to format these to make the lists more intuitive. Out of the box you can format these a few different ways (mostly whether to show the time or not). With a little XSL you can use the ddwrt:formatdatetime function to really customize things (you’ll see a couple of examples of this below) – but can’t we do more?

Large lists of data (whether they are numbers, statuses, dates, etc.) can be overwhelming. One of the greatest improvements we can make is to provide visual clues or analysis on this data to help end-users understand what they are looking at. When it comes to dates, what most people really want to know is what that date means relative to now. This is especially true when it comes to Due Dates such as seen in a Tasks list:


We’ve greatly improved the readability of this list with some quick icons as demonstrated in my previous post: Showing Icons in a List View, but those due dates don’t really mean much at quick glance. We can do a couple of things to make these instantly understandable. We can add some color to indicate when the due date is near and/or missed. Even more powerful is showing how much time is left until the Due Date.

Adding Some Color

Flagging these dates with some quick color is pretty straightforward using SharePoint Designer. Designer will be generating some XSL and we’ll take a look at it at the end of this section, but we’ll be using the wizards and so no knowledge of XSL will be needed.

Open the site in SharePoint Designer (Site Actions > Edit in SharePoint Designer) and browse to the page/view you want to edit, or if this is a specific view just choose the Modify View dropdown and select Modify in SharePoint Designer (Advanced):


In Design view, click on one of the date values in the list and choose Format Column in the Conditional Formatting dropdown on the Options tab in the ribbon:


Our goal is to turn the cell red if the due date has passed; So in the Condition Criteria dialog set Field Name to Due Date, the Comparison to Less Than and the Value should remain the default of [Current Date]. Then press the Set Style button:


This formula reads: if the Due Date is older than (less) than now, set this style. We’re now setting up that style in the Modify Style dialog. In the Font category set the font-weight to bold (I’m also setting the color to Black since the default theme’s grayish font color doesn’t look great with a red background). Switch to the Background category and select a shade of red for the background-color and press OK:


I also like to provide a little warning before things get past due; So let’s make things turn yellow on the Due Date. So again, click on one of the date values in the list and choose Format Column in the Conditional Formatting dropdown on the Options tab in the ribbon. In the Condition Criteria dialog set Field Name to Due Date, the Comparison to Equal and the Value should remain the default of [Current Date]. Then press the Set Style button:


This formula reads: if the Due Date is today, set this style. We’re now setting up that style in the Modify Style dialog. In the Font category set the font-weight to bold (I’m also setting the color to Black since the default theme’s grayish font color doesn’t look great with the yellow background either). Switch to the Background category and select a shade of yellow for the background-color and press OK:


Save the view in Designer and refresh the view in the browser and you should see something similar to this (The date this screenshot was taken was 2/7/2013):


For those that are interested, here’s the XSL that designer generated:

<xsl:attribute name="style">
	<xsl:if test="ddwrt:DateTimeTick(ddwrt:GenDisplayName(string($thisNode/@DueDate))) &lt; ddwrt:DateTimeTick(ddwrt:GenDisplayName(string($Today)))"
		font-weight: bold; background-color: #DF1515; color: #000000;
	<xsl:if test="ddwrt:DateTimeTick(ddwrt:GenDisplayName(string($thisNode/@DueDate))) = ddwrt:DateTimeTick(ddwrt:GenDisplayName(string($Today)))"
		font-weight: bold; color: #000000; background-color: #FAE032;

Relative Dates

With Due Dates there are 2 things you want to know: which ones have been missed and how much time is left. Quick color indicators are very effective in drawing the eye to important information and the red and yellow rules we put in place above help quickly answer the first question.

So how do we communicate how much time is left? Calculated columns are no help here (you can’t use Today and even when you hack it, they only get evaluated on modifications, NOT on view). The answer is some XSL tweaking. We won’t be using the same wizard-like interface as above, but I promise the type of XSL we’re going to be doing isn’t too scary.

The first thing we need to do is add some XSL templates to help us perform some basic date calculations. The easiest way is to use Andy Lewis’ DateTemplates. We’re going to pull out the needed templates and paste them directly into our XSL (since I’ve had a lot of trouble referencing external XSL when using Designer). Here’s the templates we want:

<xsl:template name="getDayDelta">
	<xsl:param name="paramDateA"/>
	<xsl:param name="paramDateB"/>
	<xsl:variable name="dateADays">
		<xsl:call-template name="countDaysInDateWithLeapYearDays">
			<xsl:with-param name="paramDate" select="$paramDateA"/>
	<xsl:variable name="dateBDays">
		<xsl:call-template name="countDaysInDateWithLeapYearDays">
			<xsl:with-param name="paramDate" select="$paramDateB"/>
	<xsl:value-of select="number($dateADays) - number($dateBDays)"/>

<xsl:template name="countDaysInDateWithLeapYearDays">
	<xsl:param name="paramDate"/>
	<xsl:variable name="year" select="substring-before($paramDate,'-')"/>
	<xsl:variable name="month" select="substring(substring-after($paramDate,'-'),1,2)"/>
	<xsl:variable name="day" select="substring(substring-after(substring-after($paramDate,'-'),'-'),1,2)"/>
	<xsl:variable name="rawYearDays" select="number($year) * 365"/>
	<xsl:variable name="rawLeapYears" select="floor($year div 4)"/>
	<xsl:variable name="centurySpan" select="floor($year div 100)"/>
	<xsl:variable name="fourCenturySpan" select="floor($year div 400)"/>
	<xsl:variable name="boolYearLeap">
		<xsl:call-template name="isLeapYear">
			<xsl:with-param name="paramYear" select="$year"/>
	<xsl:variable name="yearLeapAdjust">
			<xsl:when test="$boolYearLeap = 1 and (($month = 1) or ($month = 2 and $day != 29))">-1</xsl:when>
	<xsl:variable name="yearDays" select="$rawYearDays + $rawLeapYears - $centurySpan + $fourCenturySpan + $yearLeapAdjust "/>
	<xsl:variable name="monthDays">
		<xsl:call-template name="ConvertMonthToTotalDays">
			<xsl:with-param name="paramMonth" select="$month"/>
	<xsl:variable name="totalDays" select="$yearDays + number($monthDays) + number($day)"/>
	<xsl:value-of select="$totalDays"/>

<xsl:template name="isLeapYear">
	<xsl:param name="paramYear"/>
		<xsl:when test="$paramYear mod 4 = 0 and ($paramYear mod 100 != 0) or ($paramYear mod 400 = 0)">1</xsl:when>

<xsl:template name="ConvertMonthToTotalDays">
	<xsl:param name="paramMonth"/>
		<xsl:when test="$paramMonth=01">0</xsl:when>
		<xsl:when test="$paramMonth=02">31</xsl:when>
		<xsl:when test="$paramMonth=03">59</xsl:when>
		<xsl:when test="$paramMonth=04">90</xsl:when>
		<xsl:when test="$paramMonth=05">120</xsl:when>
		<xsl:when test="$paramMonth=06">151</xsl:when>
		<xsl:when test="$paramMonth=07">181</xsl:when>
		<xsl:when test="$paramMonth=08">212</xsl:when>
		<xsl:when test="$paramMonth=09">243</xsl:when>
		<xsl:when test="$paramMonth=10">273</xsl:when>
		<xsl:when test="$paramMonth=11">304</xsl:when>
		<xsl:when test="$paramMonth=12">334</xsl:when>

There are several templates above. We’re only going to call the getDayDelta function (it calls all the others). Copy the above XSL and in the Code view for your view of SharePoint Designer find the <Xsl> element. Skip a few lines down just past the last <xsl:param> element and paste the above. It should look something like this:


Just putting these templates in the XSL doesn’t actually do anything yet. So switch to the Split view and select one of the Due Date values. The corresponding XSL should be highlighted in the code section:


Replace the highlighted section from above with the following:

<xsl:variable name="DateDueDayDelta">
	<xsl:call-template name="getDayDelta">
		<xsl:with-param name="paramDateA" select="ddwrt:FormatDateTime(string($thisNode/@*[name()=current()/@Name]),1033,'yyyy-MM-dd')"/>
		<xsl:with-param name="paramDateB" select="ddwrt:FormatDateTime(string(ddwrt:Today()),1033,'yyyy-MM-dd')"/>

	<xsl:when test="$DateDueDayDelta=0">
	<xsl:when test="$DateDueDayDelta=1">
		<xsl:text>1 Day</xsl:text>
	<xsl:when test="$DateDueDayDelta=-1">
	<xsl:when test="$DateDueDayDelta&lt;-1">
		<xsl:value-of select="concat($DateDueDayDelta,' Days!')"/>
	<xsl:when test="$DateDueDayDelta&gt;1">
		<xsl:value-of select="concat($DateDueDayDelta,' Days')"/>

In lines 1-6 we’re calling the getDayDelta function from the DateTemplates and storing the value in a new variable called DateDueDayDelta. This value is the number of days between the first parameter, Due Date, and the second parameter, Today. We’re using the ddwrt:FormatDateTime function to ensure the parameters are in the form expected by the template. We’re also using the ddwrt:Today() function to get the current date.

Lines 8-24 is an XSL switch statement. We’re using it to give friendly text based on the number of days between. If the dates are the same, then we print “Today“. If the Due Date is still 1 day in the future, we print “1 Day“. If the Due Date is 1 day in the past (-1), we print “Yesterday!“. If the Due Date is even further in the past (< -1), we print “# Days!“. If the Due Date is more than a day away (> 1), we print “# Days“. This will probably make more sense if you just save the view and refresh it in the browser:


WOO HOO! That’s a huge improvement – but it could be better. Although I think it makes more sense to see the dates as relative for quickly glancing at the list, I don’t like losing that information altogether. So let’s put it back in as a tooltip.

In the code view, right above where you pasted the <xsl:variable> element, paste the following:

	<xsl:attribute name="title">
		<xsl:value-of select="ddwrt:FormatDateTime(string($thisNode/@DueDate),1033,'dddd, M/d/yy ')"/>

Then scroll down to the closing <xsl:choose> element and close the <span> tag. Altogether, things should look similar to this:


We just wrapped everything in a span so that we could set the title attribute (tooltip). We are again using the ddwrt:FormatDateTime function so that we can format the Due Date to show not just the date but the day of the week as well since this really helps people visualize the date when a calendar isn’t available. Save the view, refresh it in the browser and you should have something like this (The date this screenshot was taken was 2/7/2013):


You can quickly see how stacking these techniques can start to make lists much more intuitive and useful. WOWEE!

Showing Icons in a List View

Applies To: SharePoint 2010

Displaying icons in a list view is a great way to make things immediately more understandable, look awesome and make things oh so pretty. It’s a pretty common request and there are some interesting methods out there to get it done. There’s everything from deployed solutions to give you specialized columns to throwing some magical jQuery on the page. I personally prefer to keep things simple with some quick use of conditional formatting in SharePoint Designer.

Technically this solution uses some XSL which I’ll show you at the end, but you don’t need to know anything about that to get it to work. A good example of a list this works really well for is a Task list. I most often show icons based on Choice columns (since there’s a nice one-to-one mapping between icon and choice value), but you can easily adapt this solution to apply icons based off of other calculations or combination of columns (for instance, showing a frowny face when a due date has been missed and the status is not completed).

Here’s the standard Tasks list that we’re going to iconize:


Right away you’ll notice there’s at least 2 easy targets for icons. Both the Status and the Priority columns would really get a big upgrade if turned into icons.

You can put your icons wherever you want, but the easiest place is going to be a picture library right on the site. So create a new picture library called Icons (Site Actions > More Options > Library > Picture Library):


Head to the Icons library you just added and upload some icons. We’re going to upload 5 status icons and 3 priority icons. They should all be the same size (16×16 works well, but I’ll leave that up to you). There’s plenty of great icon sets out there (famfamfam and all it’s varients work very well). I’ll be using icons from the Fugue Icons collection since they look nice, there’s tons of them and they’re free:

Status Icons Priority Icons
  • StatusNotStarted  StatusNotStarted.png
  • StatusInProgress  StatusInProgress.png
  • StatusDeferred  StatusDeferred.png
  • StatusWaiting  StatusWaiting.png
  • StatusCompleted  StatusCompleted.png
  • PriorityLow  PriorityLow.png
  • PriorityNormal  PriorityNormal.png
  • PriorityHigh  PriorityHigh.png

Now that the icons are uploaded, it’ll be easy to select them in Designer (You can also have designer upload them directly from your computer while you’re working but there is a bug that sometimes keeps the path relative to your machine rather than the picture library).

Open the site in SharePoint Designer (Site Actions > Edit in SharePoint Designer) and browse to the page/view you want to edit, or if this is a specific view just choose the Modify View dropdown and select Modify in SharePoint Designer (Advanced):


The basic steps we are going to perform 8 times (one for each image):

  1. In Design view click in one of the cells for the column we are iconizing (Status or Priority)
  2. On the Insert tab in the ribbon, choose Picture:

  3. Choose the Icons library (double-click), and pick the appropriate icon image:
  4. Fill out the Accessibility Properties dialog with the appropriate information:
  5. With the new icon selected, type the value in the title field of the Tag Properties window (This will be the tooltip):TitleProperty
  6. With the new image still selected, choose Hide Content in the Conditional Formatting dropdown in the Options tab on the ribbon:
  7. In the Condition Criteria dialog, select the Field Name as the column, the Comparison as Not Equal and the Value to the value the icon should represent. This basically says when the value of this field isn’t the value this icon is meant for, then don’t show this icon:
  8. Repeat for all remaining icons

Once you save in SharePoint Designer you should see something like this on the page (after a refresh of course):


That’s it, so super pretty! I’d recommend taking the actual text values away (you’ve got them in the tooltip) or at least adding some spacing.

For those that are interested, what designer’s really doing is generating some XSL templates for you. It’s the equivalent of choosing Customize Item in the Customize XSLT dropdown on the Design tab and adding some extra XSL. The XSL we’re talking about is a simple <xsl:if> element with the <img> tag inside. For instance the Completed Status icon looks like this in XSL:

<xsl:if test="not(normalize-space($thisNode/@Status) != 'Completed')"
  	<img alt="Complete" longdesc="Complete"
  	  src="../../Icons/StatusCompleted.png" width="16" height="16"
  	  title="Complete" />

XSL isn’t nearly as scary as it seems, but Designer does a pretty good job of wrapping up a lot of basic formatting and conditional checks with some nice wizards – so why not use them?

Hiding the List Item Selection Boxes

Applies to: SharePoint 2010

In SharePoint 2010 the standard listviewwebpart adds a checkbox to the left of each row. These only show up on hover and when you check the box the entire row is highlighted. You can check multiple boxes (or even use the helpful checkbox up top to select/unselect them all at once). This allows you to perform the same action on the selected item(s) using the ribbon.

SelectionBox MultiSelection

Generally, this is a good feature. However, not everybody agrees. If you’re doing some customization and you don’t want them to show up, you can do it through CSS. Although this is the technique I previously used, I ran across a post by Glyn Clough that made me face palm. I’ll leave the CSS technique in case it helps somebody and since I can think of at least one or two reasons you might want it (simple removal of all select boxes across an entire site or keeping the selection logic without the boxes) but if you want the simple answer just skip right to that solution.


If you’re deploying a branding solution or already using a custom style sheet just add the following:

.s4-itm-hover .s4-itm-cbx,
.ms-itmhover:hover .s4-itm-cbx,
.s4-itm-selected .s4-itm-cbx,
.ms-inlineEditLink .s4-itm-inlineedit,
.ms-itmhover:hover .s4-itm-inlineedit,
.s4-itm-hover .s4-itm-inlineedit,
.s4-itm-selected .s4-itm-inlineedit
    position: relative;
    top: 0;

Bam! no more selection boxes! However, I’ve got no clue why you would want to hide those for an entire site. More likely you want to hide these from a specific list view or page. To do this you can slap a content editor web part on the page(Edit Page, Add a Web Part, Media and Content > Content Editor) and click inside it. Then choose the HTML drop down and pick Edit HTML Source:


Then paste this inside there:

.s4-itm-hover .s4-itm-cbx,
.ms-itmhover:hover .s4-itm-cbx,
.s4-itm-selected .s4-itm-cbx,
.ms-inlineEditLink .s4-itm-inlineedit,
.ms-itmhover:hover .s4-itm-inlineedit,
.s4-itm-hover .s4-itm-inlineedit,
.s4-itm-selected .s4-itm-inlineedit {
    position: relative;
    top: 0;

Save the page and you should see that all the list views on the page no longer have the selection box (although you can still click on the item(s) and get selection and multiselection):

NoSelectionBox MultiSelectionNoBox

So what about that Select All box up there? Why you want to break all the interfaces!?!

Unfortunately this isn’t as straight-forward. Microsoft did provide a convenient class for the checkbox: s4-selectAllCbx. However, until you hover over the web part, that class is not applied to the input control – Very strange. So applying some styles to that class will only take effect after someone has hovered over the part.

If you really want to do this with CSS you can add an additional selector to the above styles to get this (the key is that last selector .ms-vh-icon input):

.s4-itm-hover .s4-itm-cbx,
.ms-itmhover:hover .s4-itm-cbx,
.s4-itm-selected .s4-itm-cbx,
.ms-inlineEditLink .s4-itm-inlineedit,
.ms-itmhover:hover .s4-itm-inlineedit,
.s4-itm-hover .s4-itm-inlineedit,
.s4-itm-selected .s4-itm-inlineedit,
.ms-vh-icon input {
    position: relative;
    top: 0;

This hides them all but doesn’t shrink the column. There’s probably a CSS way to do that too, but honestly let’s just use the setting below.

The Real Solution

So everything above has been overkill. I remember looking for a simple setting to turn those boxes off and not finding it. I can’t be the only one since you’re reading this article – but it doesn’t get much easier than this.

Just edit the view (either the view used by the web part or an actual view on the list) and scroll down to the Tabular View section and uncheck the box next to Allow individual item checkboxes:


Click OK and now those checkboxes are removed! Unfortunately so is all selection and multi-selection. So if you have some strange need to keep the selection but remove the boxes, see the CSS solution above. If you just wanted to remove them altogether, remember to always look at the settings!

If you take a look at the XML generated for the view you’ll see that all this is doing is adding a TabularView attribute to your View element and setting it to FALSE.